Tire – is the main wheel’s component which comes in a shape of a ring and surrounds a wheel’s rim. It transfers a vehicle’s load from the axle through the wheel to the ground. Tire provides traction on the surface traveled over.
There are two aspects to how pneumatic tires support the rim of the wheel on which they are mounted. First, tension in the cords pulls on the bead uniformly around the wheel, except where it is reduced above the contact patch. Transfer of the net force to the rim through the bead is the second aspect
The cords that make up the ply and the elastomer which encases them are the two groups of materials of which modern pneumatic tires consists The cords, which form the ply and bead and provide the tensile strength necessary to contain the inflation pressure, can be composed of steel, natural fibers such as cotton or silk, or synthetic fibers such as nylon or kevlar. Composed of steel, natural fibers such as cotton or silk, or synthetic fibers such as nylon or Kevlar, the cords form the ply and bead and provide the tensile strength necessary to contain the inflation pressure The elastomer, which forms the tread and encases the cords to protect them from abrasion and hold them in place, is a key component of pneumatic tire design. It can be composed of various composites of rubber material – the most common being styrene-butadiene copolymer – with other chemical compounds such as silica and carbon black. To reduce fuel consumption in the transportation sector the rolling resistance in the elastomer material optimization is a key challenge.
There are about 450 factories that manufacture pneumatic tires Tire production starts with bulk raw materials such as rubber (60% -70% synthetic), carbon black, and chemicals and produces numerous specialized components that are assembled and cured. Many kinds of rubber are used, the most common being styrene-butadiene copolymer. Bridgestone, Michelin, Goodyear, Continental, and Pirelli are the top manufacturing companies by revenue.
The first tires were simply bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear, and then rubber was developed. Early rubber tires were solid (not pneumatic). Today many types of vehicles, including bicycles, motorcycles, cars, buses, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft use pneumatic tires. Metal tires are still used on locomotives and railcars. Solid rubber (or another polymer) tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, carts, lawnmowers, and wheelbarrows.