Philosophy 101/Prof. Sears
Module #8 Paradigm Shifts (Page #5 Paragraph C.)
According to module number eight, a paradigm shift was first introduced by the philosopher Thomas Kuhn. Kuhn founded that during a paradigm shift things themselves do not change, but the way in which we think of things changing in the midst of a paradigm shift just might change. Kuhn also states that the paradigm shifts can be characterized as a scientific revolution that precedes the activities of normal science. Paradigm shifts from a philosophical standpoint describes a change in a fundamental model.
From the examples given in module number eight involving a pen falling or rolling off the desk, like most human beings have learned from a very early age within their own individual lives is that the reason for things that goes up must come down, or in the case of this pen or pencil falling or rolling off the table had to be described as gravity. Gravity can be defined as the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass. If gravity in philosophy means that the natural forces of earth cause things to fall toward the center of the earth then does that insinuate that the center of the earth is beneath us? According to module number eight it is almost impossible for gravity to be the reason for something to have fallen. The reason why it is almost near impossible for gravity to be the sole reason for something to fall is predicated on gravity changing with each and every paradigm shift.
Throughout time gravity took the form of many different concepts, by many different but respected ancient philosophers. In 1400 C.E. and even prior, gravity was the concept of the pens requirement or desire to find its way to the center of the earth. In 1700 gravity was the concept of a force that acted at a distance according to Newton’s mathematical laws, while the most recent concept of gravity was introduced in the year 1905. In the year 1905 the concept of gravity, according to Einstein was an effect of curved space-time and that gravity does not pull anything to the center of the earth, but space on the other hand is bent. Gravity today is being described by physicists as a force carried by subatomic particles called “gravitons” and they are trying to fit the concept of gravity into the Standard Model of particle physics to no avail. Because gravity is considered a concept, gravity therefore cannot possibly make anything fall as a form of concept. Based on this theory of gravity only being considered a concept and not something of physicality in nature, it would be more accurate to view things falling such as pens and pencils or even apples from an apple tree as the source or cause for the many different concepts of gravity that form within the different paradigm shifts that occur all around the world.
Throughout the course of History, science has been witness to a great amount of paradigm shifts. Unlike gravity drawing its energy and revolving around the center of the earth, paradigm shifts in reality revolve around the Sun rather than the center of the earth. According to “The move from the ancient Aristotelian mechanics to Newtonian physics in the 1600s” of module number eight Aristotle stated that objects such as pencils or pens need to be pushed in order to get them going. Aristotle also states that the pens and pencils after being pushed to get them going would eventually roll to a stop in their efforts or desire to seek out the center of the earth. In the world today and universe we view Aristotle’s score on gravity and paradigm shifts as a common sense, or folk viewpoint in the since that it was easy to draw conclusions as well as make assumptions regarding Aristotle’s views on the matter by simply making your own assessment of the environment